The HUGArtificial Reef is a game changer. It promises to bring electricity created from ocean waves to the islands of the world at a very low cost.
Artificial reefs, at 4, have long been on the forefront of surfers’ minds. They can create very high slab waves, at 1.
This is how a wave builds after it hits a focus point. The parallel wave fronts arriving at the coast need to be deflected on an angle over a head or focus, called a pointbreak.
The wave is pushed up further than it normally would by 200%- 250%.This rising causes the wave to peel at only one place but as it proceeds towards shallower water over the wall of a reservoir along the wedge or the wall of the reservoir. The wave peels further and further, while keeping its height. What surfing and how safe!
A slab is a piece of reef that sticks out in deep water or deep water sits behind it. Most slabs break in the same spot. In the figure below, the HUGslab wave, 1, moves fast and hits a shallow reef, 4, at full speed. It lifts out of nowhere within seconds. HUG Slab waves are heavy reef breaks coming out of deep water and breaking in very shallow water. As a thick lip unloads on a shelf, the water doesn’t have anywhere to go but upwards overtoppinginto a reservoir with all their open-ocean energy intact. That energy gets focused as the depth suddenly decreases.
Acceleration = a = g (acceleration of gravity) = 9.8 m3/sec(Final Velocity)2 = 2 x a x s
In the summer, the head of water is 1.5 m from water forcing through the automatic gates of the artificial reef:
Final Velocity = 5.42 m/sec for 1.5 m drop (s):
In the winter, the head of water is 5 m from water washing over the walls of the artificial reef:
Final Velocity = 9.9 m/sec for 5 m drop (s) of the crest to sea level.
Wave heights during storms may exceed 10 meters (33 feet)
Final Power of the Helical Turbine
The formula for Kinetic Energy is KE= ½ x A x V3 x (.35) efficiency (A = area swept; Velocity)
Diameter of the Helical Turbine in the HUG is 1 m. The radius is 0.5 m: A = π r2 = π (0.5)2 = .785 m2
= ½ x .785 m2 x (42 m/sec)3 x .35 = 21.9 kW/turbine in summer x 7= .153 MW HUG System
= ½ x .785 m2 x (9 m/sec)3 x .35 = 132.6 kW/turbine in winter x 7= .927 MWHUGSystem
The velocity of the speed at which a wave travels in winter: period is every 7 seconds for a velocity of 7.6 m/sec(25 ft/sec).
The average height is normally 3m to 4m (10 ft to 13 ft). The slab wave increases by 250%: 7.5 m to 10 m
The individual waves break when their wave height H is larger than 0.8 times the water depth h: a breaker 2 m high would occur in water 2.4 m deep.
Wave heights are amplified in the region of shallower water. At the wave period of 7 seconds, the significant wave height is 2 m high at depths of 12 m. The slab wave configuration raises the height to 5 m.
The formula for Kinetic Energy is KE= ½ x A x V 3 x (.35) efficiency (A = area swept; Velocity).
(Diameter of the Helical Turbine Area: 1 m) = .5 x .5 x 3.14 = .785 m2The area of the throat of the HUG is .785 m2: radius is 0.5 meter.
Hydro power once averaged over 20% of U.S. electric power sector net generation in 1970. Over the past decade (2004–2013), hydro power provided an average of 6.8% of U.S. electric power sector net generation.Untapped non-power dam (NPD) resources will transform small hydro into a major energy source.
The U.S. Administration’s goal is to generate 80% of the nation’s electricity to clean energy sources by 2035 and lead the world in clean energy innovation.
The hydro power resource assessment by the Department of Energy’s Hydropower Program has identified 5,677 sites in the United States with acceptable undeveloped hydro power potential. These sites have a modeled undeveloped capacity of about 30,000 MW. This represents about 40 percentof the existing conventional hydro power capacity.
The 80,000+ non-powered facilities represent the vast majority of dams in the country; more than 90% of dams are used for services, such as regulating water supply and controlling inland navigation, and lack electricity-generating equipment.
An assessment of energy potential from new stream-reach development in the United States led by DOE’s ORNL provides a national picture of the remaining new hydropower development opportunities in U.S. rivers and streams. The assessment concluded that the technical resource potential is 85 GW of capacity. When federally protected lands—national parks, national wild and scenic rivers, and wilderness areas—are excluded, the remaining potential is over 60 GW of capacity or 347 TWh/year of generation.
Power stations can likely be added to many of these dams at a lower cost than creating new powered dam structures. Together, these non-power dam (NPD) facilities could power millions of households and avoid millions of metric tons of carbon dioxide emissions each year.