The lack of adequate safe (potable) water supplies for basic human needs is a significant problem throughout Haiti, although surface and ground water resources are abundant. This situation leads to increased competition for limited resources. Several of the main reasons for this situation are:
- uneven rainfall distribution;
- degradation of the watersheds caused by deforestation;
- rapid growth in urban areas with demand beyond capacity;
- poor distribution networks;
- poor water resources management;
- no single agency responsible for management of water ;
- lack of adequate data needed to make informed decisions;
- poor irrigation supply network leading to underdevelopment;
- lack of wastewater treatment and solid waste disposal.
Most of the streams are relatively small and less than 100 kilometers long. With each passing year, the rivers and streams flow more like torrents and less like stable permanent rivers. The largest natural lake in the country is Étang Saumâtre has no outlet, and contains brackish water. Many of the smaller natural lakes that exist throughout the country also contain brackish water.
About 54 percent of the population lives in abject poverty. Based on 1997 estimates, the unemployment rate in a work force of approximately 3.6 million is about 38 percent.
Only 61.7% of the population have jobs but these are the working poor as many make only $3.10 per day. Women are least likely to go to school or have a job. Violence against women is common with 22.8% of women reporting abuse – what of the abuse that goes unreported? Of course the issue of “restavek” children or child slavery persists despite national and international laws. It is a socially accepted norm to sell children ages 5-15 and to make then work for no pay, to deny them the opportunity to attend school and results in children being abused both physically and sexually.
In Cite Soleil – the largest slum in Haiti is 3 square miles and has about 200-300,000 people. Most are unemployed and the vast majority are children. In Haiti 65% of the people are under 25 years old. The children live in extreme hunger and are exposed to gang violence, high risk for HIV/AIDS, no opportunity for an education, no sewer system and rat infestations. On average – nine people live in one shack.
Most people who live in the slums state their biggest fear is violence – especially for women and girls (Haugen and Boutros, 2014). In the slums, this problem is rampant; acts of violence are intentionally hidden, legal protection is non-existent and violence keeps the poor from ever escaping poverty.
Water supply for Port-au-Prince, the most populated area in Haiti, is poor. In 1995 only about 35 percent of the nearly 2.5 million inhabitants had access to the water system. Most receive water only twice a week. The lack of service is attributed to
- system losses associated with the age of the distribution system and theft of service, estimated at 60 percent;
- interruptions in the power supply to the wells and pumps; and
- contamination of water sources.
LET’S DEAL WITH GLOBAL WARMING NOW!
Let us examine the 80% of allocated funds ($720 million of $900 million) of the world to other than Africa. Does this breakdown address the highest need to deal with Global Warming? It would appear that all these agencies are off the mark to “helping countries build Resilience to climate change’s impacts.“ Building this kind of Resilience is like locking the stable door after the horse has been stolen.
What comes first? An Emission absorption solution or manufacturing of face masks for everyone. The situation cannot be changed by improving security after a major theft. We must deal with the Security Problem first! The door (Our world as we know it) cannot be vulnerable to attack.
To correct the problem we must fix the barn door (Emission absorption Solution) or harness the horse (Reduce Emissions). Now we really must catch the horse (Solve the emission problem), but very few people (the Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund (MDG-F) are searching for the horse. This includes all of the participants starting from the largest: UNDP, UNICEF, FAO, UNESCO, ILO, UNFPA, WFP, UNIDO, UNWOMEN, PAHO/WHO and IOM.
In the meantime, our governments are simply thinking about taxing some polluters a little and readjusting the tax to keep it neutral. Our Governments are only talking to locksmiths. In other words, they are not addressing the problem at all. (Remember: the horse has already bolted).
Carbon Emission to be Solved
The world leaders must find a way to absorb carbon dioxide emissions that is in our atmosphere now. Trees and soils are the only way to absorb the present glut of CO2 in your world.
Presently these funds are improperly managed because they attempt to make the tax neutral by redirecting the fund for tax rebates to working families, cutting sales tax and reducing the tax on manufacturing. All this is very admirable but it doesn’t solve the high concentration of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere, which is presently causing global warming.
The Funds to Finance Rehabilitation
There are two sources of funds based on two different methods of absorbing carbon emissions: one from biochar in soils and the other from planting of trees. Continue reading SEVEN BILLION TREES
THE ECONOMIC CASE
Cutting emissions will not be enough to keep global warming in check.
Greenhouse gases must be scrubbed from the air.No one in power is listening to the climate skeptics anymore.
One discovery after another suggests the world is warming faster, and climate damages are appearing sooner, than anyone had expected. Much of the policy discussion so far has been aimed at keeping the atmospheric concentration of CO2 below 450 parts per million (ppm) — which was until recently thought to be low enough to prevent dangerous levels of warming. But paleoclimatic evidence shows 450 ppm is the threshold for transition to an ice-free earth. This would imply a catastrophic rise in sea levels, eventually flooding all coastal cities and regions.
To avoid reaching such a crisis stage, climate scientists now call for stabilizing CO2 concentrations at 350 ppm. The world is now around 390 ppm and rising.
Some scientists and activists believe that a concentration of over 350 parts-per-million of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere could lead to feedback loops (the release of methane from Arctic permafrost, for example) that could make warming almost impossible to stop.
A British team demonstrated that coral reefs won’t survive acidified waters unless we get CO2 concentrations back down below 360 ppm.
There is a failure of the press to cover urgency of carbon tax. Carbon should not flow unpriced into the atmosphere, any more than you should be allowed to toss your garbage in the street. It makes no sense that the fossil fuel industry is allowed to put out their waste for free, using the atmosphere as an open sewer.
Nearly all of those decisions share a common, crucial element: they are shaped, by the relative prices of available energy choices. The only way to get enough change is to send a price signal so that everyone from investors to car buyers will change their behavior automatically: a kind of perpetual motion machine.
A straightforward plan is simply to tax carbon directly. Canada has introduced the gradual approach of a $10/ton of carbon emissions to finally get the ball rolling, while some of the provinces have elected to increase this tax to $30/ton. In the meantime, Exxon has been planning for $50 a ton to make sure it won’t put a crimp in their business.
Yes, carbon tax is inevitable but one thing stands in the way: PRICE POINT. If we want to move the needle, we have to move the market. We need a top down message. A steadily rising tax on fossil fuels will send a strong price signal. A proposed carbon tax pending in the New York state legislature (A.B. 8372: proposes to increase the tax gradually from $35 to $185 per ton.)
Is that the only thing that needs to be done?
To keep the pressure on carbon emissions, a “fee-and-dividend” approach sets a price on carbon, and then rebates all the revenue straight to citizens, perhaps even sending them a monthly check. Yes, the price we pay at the pump goes up but the check covers the increased cost. It’s called revenue neutrality.
It’s one arrow in a quiver full of other arrows we’re going to need. As we see temperatures shattering new records every month, we need to do everything: not just a price on carbon, but dramatic subsidies for renewables to speed their spread.
We know what to do, but building a will to do it seems like an insuperable obstacle.
The definition of quixotic: foolishly impractical especially in the pursuit of ideals especially marked by rash lofty romantic ideas or extravagantly chivalrous action. Our rash ideas are bringing us to the opposite direction with no change in sight.
The clock ticks and each month we lose ground and face a warmer future and a bigger challenge to reign in green house gas effects on our life support on this planet. Building such an effort requires an international cooperation far beyond anything accomplished thus far, with an effort comparable to, or greater than, World War II.
In the pre-industrial global carbon cycle before 1750, there was zero carbon change. It was not unlike a chemical equilibrium that automatically balances itself.
GOOD WORD FOR THE ELECTRIC CAR
Over the next 30 years we will see automobiles fully electrify. Gas emissions produced by traditional cars are poisoning the air that we breathe: in big cities the situation is critical. We need to change, and electrified vehicles is the solution. But which one: Battery or Hydrogen?
Energy efficient, battery-powered cars will, by 2025, be cheaper to buy than conventional, gasoline-powered cars.
Bloomberg New Energy Finance recently reported that the price of the zero emission cars is largely due to falling battery costs. The report says that “batteries currently account for about half the cost of EVs, and their prices will fall by about 77 percent between 2016 and 2030.”
Automaker Renault predicts ownership costs of electric vehicles will, by the early 2020s, equal that of conventional gas-powered vehicles.
The report also noted that by 2025 14% of new car sales, or 100 million electric cars globally, will be electric vehicles.
For fleet operators, this is good news. In 2014, greencarreports.com reported that electric vehicle fleets could save operators an average of $16,000 each, compared to the traditional vehicles over a service life of seven years. Now, the cost savings is clearly larger.
One of the challenges, however, with electric vehicles is total energy demand. The energy demand created by fully charging an electric vehicle (EV) can be as high as total domestic electricity consumption for one household, albeit more concentrated over particular periods of the day as well as geographical areas.
The latest study by McKinsey* et al (Electrifying insights: How automakers can drive electrified vehicle sales and profitability) claim around 2030 or so, EVs will be price competitive with conventional cars, which was based on sound data.
The report states that consumer demand is starting to shift in favor of slightly. While more than 20 per cent of new car shoppers think about buying a new battery-powered electric car, less than 0.5 per cent actually does buy.
There is still a battery barrier.
The HUG California Canyon Wave Energy is a game changer. It promises to bring electricity created from ocean wave energy from the canyons of the shores of California at a very low cost.
Ocean Wave Energy
The HUG River Fed Energy is a game changer. It promises to bring electricity created from River Fed ocean wave energy to the shores of the world at a very low cost. The potential projects are selected from both Colombia and Venezuela in an area where there is more rainfall than in any part of the world: the Choco
At a River Outlet:
This approach adds river water to the height of the reservoir if flooding is not an issue. The river continues to flow unabated. The spawning of fish will not be affected because a large transfer pipe is used to feed river water into the reservoir.
This approach includes the possibility of adding more HUGs.
Island Wave Energy Potential
The HUG Island Wave Energy is a game changer. It promises to bring electricity created from ocean wave energy to the ocean shores of the islands of the world at a very low cost.
We have been waiting for a wave energy solution for the last 40 years. There have been a dozen approaches with a lot of activity in the last ten years, but there have been no resounding commercial successes. Most ideas are replicated from other ideas in the box.
This HUG Wave Energy System is “out of the box” and it will cause an Energy Revolution.
Locations that have the most to gain:
- *Tofino, Jordan River, Byron Bay, Vancouver Island
The HUG Hawaii Wave Energy is a game changer. It promises to bring electricity created from ocean wave energy to the ocean shores of Hawaii at a very low cost.
Hawaii would seem a natural site for such technology. As any surfer can tell you, it is blessed with powerful waves. The island state also has the nation’s highest electricity costs—largely because of its heavy reliance on oil delivered by sea—and has a legislative mandate to get 100 percent of its energy from renewables by 2045.
The following images are located along the coast of Hawaii wherever there is a natural small bay. This type of topography reduces the cost of the reservoir.