HUG SMALL HYDRO
Our small hydro energy barge system is smaller and creates higher velocity: the secret is the vortex! Laminar flow is created in the HUG with almost zero friction because a boundary layer is created, where the flow never touches the inside of the HUG pipeline system. This energy, which this current form ‘generates’, can be seen in any tornado.
In this streamline flow, every particle of the liquid follows the same path as the preceding particle. Crowding of the paths or streamlining the paths produces greater velocity of the liquid particles. A vortex is created in a spiral vessel, which concentrates the energy.
The velocity of the flow is measured in meter/seconds along the Y axis, while the length of the flume is measured in meters along the X axis. The ambient flow gradually increases in velocity and reaches its maximum velocity of 4 times the ambient flow.
The turbine’s power is proportional to the cube of its average velocity. Thus, a doubling of the average speed of the flow results in an eight-fold increase in its power, which results in the lowest cost: $0.092/kWh in remote areas without the use of dams or expensive civil works.
The resulting kinetic energy (KE) would be increased by a power of three: v3 to 53 or 125 times compared to 1m/sec of the ambient flow. The faster 2.5 knot (1.25 m/sec) current becomes 5 m/sec inside the HUG and the KE of an array of HUGs increases up to 1350 kW for 20,000 homes and potentially hundreds of megawatts.
Here is the formula for Kinetic Energy:
= .5 x Area x v3 x .35 (efficiency)}
The velocity of the flow: 5 m/sec
The Area of Pipeline with a diameter of 1.5 m (59”) is .75 x .75 x 3.14 = 1.77 m2
KE = .5 x 1.77 x 53 x .35 = 38.7 kW: enough energy to support 114 natives from one HUG
If an aboriginal reserve wishes to apply for an Aboriginal Grant, 15% cash equity is required: $414,500 Aboriginals must own controlling shares (up to 51%) in the new hydro company of their area.
The new 7 HUG Industrial System of 270 kW can accommodate 2,130 MWh/year for 800 natives for an initial cash equity cost of $518/native and for that price they will have very low cost electricity for the next 15- 30 years. The O &M annual cost is only 0.05% of the cost of the HUG System or $48/kW/year x .66 kW of individual use: $32/year.
Equivalent diesel costs range between $1.10/kWh to $1.20/kWh for an average of 2,660 kWh/year, which costs $2928/year to $3,195/year. The money spent on the high cost for diesel oil can now be spent on food and education.
The demand for electricity in remote areas is: 5.8 MWh/year/native: (5,800kW/ 8,760 hours/year) = 0 .66 kWh/native: or 660 watts for one hour: 5.5 Amps. A family of five will have access to 3,300 watts/hour at 27.5 amps.
Here is a big bonus. You have to go through 20 to 25 different regulatory agencies in this country. The HUG Energy System acts in the form not unlike that of a boat, which requires little environmental regulations and a savings of years of environmental auditing.
Typical 120-volt AC Appliances
Hot Plate (Single)
TV 9 inch colour
1.7 — 5.2
0.35 — 2.6
0.35 – 0.87
0.4 – 3.5
3.5 – 10.4
To find the number of amps that an appliance uses, divide the number of watts by 120 (voltage).
Environmental Concerns of Diesel
- Burning large amounts of diesel produces substantial greenhouse gas emissions. This contributes to climate change which negatively affects Northern communities.
- Fuel must be transported long distances by airplane, truck or barge, leading to a greater risk of fuel spills.
- Fuel spills may take place while the fuel is being transported and stored, posing environmental risks. Fuel tank leaks contaminate soil and groundwater.
Social Concerns of Diesel
- Generators can be noisy and disruptive, especially in quiet, remote communities.
- Emissions from diesel generators could contribute to health problems in community members.
- Black-outs can occur if diesel generators break down or are not properly maintained. This can be dangerous in cold, remote locations.
Economic Concerns of Diesel
- Diesel is a non-renewable resource; therefore the price of diesel fuel will likely continue to fluctuate in the future, based on overall supply and demand.
- The high cost of energy and energy supply issues in off-grid communities can deter new businesses, thus limiting future economic opportunities in off-grid communities.