There is a dangerous scenario for the future for all islands because of the finite nature of fossil fuel and the fact that islands are more and more vulnerable to fluctuations in oil prices and availability.
All islands must achieve 70% clean energy from locally generated renewable sources. They must be more independent and less reliant on other economies.
Experts have calculated that wave power from the oceans could provide 70 per cent of the world’s current energy requirements. Yet the wave-energy industry is in its infancy, with no commercial-scale facilities operating anywhere in the world. We need Island Electricity!
They have not invented the best wave energy device yet,
… but they have not investigated the HUG*:
Imagine an entirely new system to create electricity along the shore of any island or any seashore using wave energy.
HUG is a simple and inexpensive harvester of ocean wave energy targeted to islands which now are forced to use over-priced diesel fuel to generate electricity.
HUG has the capacity to allow power companies to service their customer with base load renewable power (unlike wind, solar, and many other wave energy devices).
* The HUG invention has applied to the U.S. Energy Department Wave Energy Prize Competition.
The Slab Wave
We introduce a slab wave from an artificial reef , which is higher than 20 feet as shown by the diagram. A slab wave begins with any shallow reef or rock shelf over which very steep and powerful waves break.
Tahiti’s Teahupoo is such a slab wave, that is at least ten feet thick and 40 feet tall. . They can also be found in the Pacific Northwest, in Scotland, and, most notably, at Shipstern’s Bluff, in the Southern Ocean off Tasmania: a boiling 50-footer.
A slab wave moves fast, through deep water, and hits a shallow reef at full speed. It lifts out of nowhere within seconds, sucks the water out of the shallows in front of it, and then slams shut in a violent thump. The power and danger of a slab come as much from the thickness as the height.
One can install an artificial reef in front of a deep trench that amplifies the swell, and the slab wave seems to just pop up out of nowhere.
Now let us imagine that you have selected the best location for an artificial reef — in a popular tourist area with prevailing winds. Your site selection doesn’t include sharp jagged urchin filled bottoms. What you have created is a surfer’s paradise. Surfers can ride the wave all along the artificial reef, which is properly angled for maximum action. What a tourist attraction!
Now let’s talk about the real reason for the HUG: POWER
The formula for Kinetic Energy is KE= ½ x A x V 3 x efficiency (A = area swept; Velocity). The area of the throat of HUG is 3.26 m2
= ½ x 3.26 m2 x (11.7 m/s)3 x .35 = 913 kW/turbine
Acceleration = a = g (acceleration of gravity)= 9.8 m/sec
(Final Velocity)2 = 2 x a x s (distance of drop) = 11.7 m/s
|(a) Distance (s) of Crest of HUG (m)||(b) Number of Systems||(c) Number of Turbines/System||(d) Final Velocity (m/s) V2 = 2as||(e) Final Power (kW/turbine) = ½ x 3.26 m2 x (d)3 x .35||(f) Total Power (MW) (c x e)||
(h) Total Power Output of HUG (MW) (b x f)
How can the HUG produce 11 MW/system? The most critical factor is the Velocity of the flow. It is the same energy of a 10 foot waterfall: the laminar flow inside the HUG accelerates at 9.8 m/sec and travels at a Velocity of 11.7 m/sec
The average cost to produce hydro electricity is $3,500/kW to $8,500/kW compared to $900/kW for the HUG.
The Wave Dragon is the closest invention to the HUG concept. The total steel weight of the main body is 150 tons. The HUG sits on a hexagonal barge that is a fraction of this weight. The main reservoir of the HUG has no weight at all, since its surrounding sides are buoyed on a special barge.
Now let us look at the other huge advantages:
- The HUG is the only wave energy converter technology under development that can be freely up-scaled, because of its low cost/kilowatt and its comparatively low weight.
- Due to its size service, HUG maintenance and even major repair works can be carried out at sea leading to low operating and maintenance cost relatively to other concepts. The HUG can be lifted and replaced by a crane on a sea going barge.
Hydrogen Filling Stations for Island Cars and Trucks
Unlike electric vehicles that rely on energy stored in batteries, electric vehicles powered by fuel cells can be replenished as quickly as those powered by gasoline. Just pop open the fuel cap, attach a nozzle and fill it up in a few minutes.
There is one problem though — a lack of friendly neighborhood hydrogen stations. The major obstacle is availability of an acceptable infrastructure where customers can just fill up hydrogen powered cars like they do with their gas or diesel cars.
Mercedes, Hyundai, Ford, GM, Toyota and others all have hydrogen fuel cell programs and costs are coming down as they focus on moving into production.
The Tesla line of battery-electric cars, chairman Elon Musk, says there’s no future for fuel cell vehicles, citing the difficulty of creating, transporting and storing hydrogen. Yet in Germany this industry is starting with fuel cell power for buses, trains and trams, which will make increasing sense in the years ahead.
Ballard has sold about 3,000 emergency power systems, largely to the telecom sector. The units kick in to support cellular systems if grid power fails. Ballard claims, “From a commercial product standpoint there are actually paying customers, that out of purely economical self-interest are purchasing fuel cells, and you could not have said that 10 years ago. ”
Hydrogen just got backing/confirmation by heavy hitters in academia over multiplying its energy production in the triple digits. By 2015, Germany is expected to have 5,000 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles roaming the streets.
That’s why the German Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development (BMVBS) and several industrial companies have signed a Letter of Intent to expand Germany’s hydrogen filling station network. It will take the current tally of 15 hydrogen stations up to 50 (initially used by buses and trucks, which have predictable schedules). The BMVBS and Germany’s industrial sector are investing 40 million Euros, or $50.8 million, to expand the country’s network.
So while Germany seems well on the way to adopting a hydrogen network, the U.S. still lags behind. The United States could start in Hawaii, where oil and gas prices are extremely high. The biggest problem of the losses transmitting electricity of compressing and transporting hydrogen can be overcome: a wave energy solution along the shore with a hydrogen filling station on site.
The secret of hydrogen electrolysis is the low cost of electricity, which must be kept under $0.05/kWh. The high cost of transmission of hydrogen can be eliminated by building hydrogen filling stations for automobiles and trucks right at the site of HUG Wave Energy System: the frontage on shore ranges up to 565 m.
Hydrogen production is more environmentally sustainable and much cheaper than imported oil and gas, which has to be shipped to an island. On average, a wave power plant can cost around $6-10 million to be spent in building one Megawatt. The average HUG Power Plant produces 11 MW for a much lower investment because of its simplicity and its high power density. The operating cost is very low during its entire lifetime: $0.02/kWh. An annual offsetting green energy grant for energy renewable sources of $0.05/kWh will reduce this operating cost. Compare this to the cost of electricity in Hawaii: $.34/kWh.
Now Let’s Build a New Island Harbor!
( to protect workers during construction)
- Precast structures in reinforced concrete with an expanded polystyrene core, of significant size, when connected in series provide a durable floating barrier.
- This barrier (width of 6 m and height of 2.4 m) provides temporary protection from large waves during construction of the HUG.
- Later the Floating Breakwaters can be used as harbors to create safe zones for smaller less seaworthy vessels.
- There are numerous islands around the world that are uninhabited because they have no harbor & no cheap source of energy.
This is a Real Island Electrical Revolution!
SOME IMPORTANT LINKS
- An Irrigation System: NORTHydro.com
- A Rabbit and Fish Farm: AfriCAPITALISM.us
- An Agroforestry Intercrop System: LivingWaterIs.com
- The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
- God’s Loveletters: Godloveletters.com
- Thunder of Justice: ThunderofJustice.com
- Microfinance for women: LivingWaterMicroFinance.org
- Deliverance Is: DeliveranceIs.com