Low Cost Energy
The secret to low energy costs is to keep the Breakwater cost low: build a road-worthy seawall from the shore so that trucks can haul stone works more economically than by barge.
Building a Breakwater from the Shore
A major part of the breakwaters constructed in the world are the so-called conventional ruble mound breakwaters, which consist of a core, a filter layer and a heavy armor layer. An alternative to the conventional ruble mound breakwater is a berm breakwater.
When there is a rock quarry, relatively close to the construction site, which is dedicated to the breakwater project, the Icelandic type has proven to be very attractive economically. The basic reason for that is that unlike the other types the Icelandic type utilizes the quarry 100%.
The smaller armor stones are then placed rather deep where the influence of the wave attack is less, as well as on the rear end of the structure, while the largest stones are placed where the largest wave attack is expected.
The key to the use of the Icelandic berm breakwater design is in its ability to match the predicted quarry yields of the potential quarries.
The equipment park used by the contractor consists of 4 backhoe excavators 110, 75, 50 and 25 tons, three front loaders 75 and two 45 tons, three dumpers, a split barge of 250 m3 capacity and three drilling rigs. They used a large excavator both in sorting the largest stones and placing them on the breakwater.
Armor stones (3-7 tons and 6-10.5 tons) in the dump trucks were transported to the storage yards or unloaded onto the flat top barges moored at the temporary harbor. There are three ramps (adjustable gangways) for the dump trucks to access to the flat top barges from the land. Filter stones (250-1,500 kg) mixed together with core materials in the dump trucks were sent to the top of stockpile and discharged along the brink to allow the stones falling along the slopes of stockpile so as to segregate them. Filter stones at the toe of this stockpile were picked up by wheel loaders and loaded onto dump trucks for transferring to the flat top barges, or, to other storage yards near the temporary harbor.
Companies have built wave energy systems, only to find them dashed upon the rocks.
The performance and efficiency of these systems is greatly reduced during storms and rough weather so in locations that are prone to these conditions, wave power may not be very effective. Not so with the HUG: it is constantly protected behind a strong Breakwater.
In addition we introduce a Slab Wave…
The wave height varies between 3 to 6 feet depending on the direction of the wind, the tide and the swell direction. A slab wave from an artificial reef increases the wave height to 15′. This slab wave begins with any shallow reef or rock shelf and ends in a heavy wave break coming out of deep water and breaking high in very shallow water.
What happens when high waves interfere with the building of the HUG Artificial Reef?
You build Temporary Floating Breakwaters!
- Precast structures in reinforced concrete with an expanded polystyrene core, of significant size, when connected in series provide a durable floating barrier.
- This barrier (width of 6 m and height of 2.4 m) provides temporary protection from large waves during construction of the HUG.
- Later the Floating Breakwaters can be used as harbors to create safe zones for smaller less seaworthy vessels.
- There are numerous islands around the world that are uninhabited because they have no harbor & a cheap source of energy.
SOME IMPORTANT LINKS
- An Irrigation System: NORTHydro.com
- A Rabbit and Fish Farm: AfriCAPITALISM.us
- An Agroforestry Intercrop System: LivingWaterIs.com
- The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
- God’s Loveletters: Godloveletters.com
- Thunder of Justice: ThunderofJustice.com
- Microfinance for women: LivingWaterMicroFinance.org
- Deliverance Is: DeliveranceIs.com