This “one inventive idea” is not like a grand idea similar to wind turbines, that started small and developed into 150,000 MW globally. Each new development of wind turbines was an improvement on what worked well in the first place. The grand idea of the wind turbine was something to work toward, but the grand idea had to come first.
Inventions whose ideas remain in the Box, which are only a slight change to present ideas have never succeeded in the last 30 years. Each country knows that it must find more sources of sustainable energy. The Department of Energy from each country turns to the engineering departments of universities — almost in desperation. Under extreme anxiety, the staff comes up with an idea, but the idea come from inside the Box. Often the government throws millions of dollars at that “one inventive idea“.
The wave energy industry is in its infancy, with no commercial-scale facilities operating anywhere in the world. Bloomberg New Energy Finance, a London-based researcher, in August said the evolution of marine-energy systems is taking longer than expected and costing more than forecast. BNEF lowered its capacity forecast for wave power by 2020 to 21 megawatts, 72 percent less than its original estimate. It stated large amounts of money will be required for wave power to catch up with wind and solar.
A theme among wave power experts is that wave energy is where wind energy was three decades ago. It will likely require the participation of some large companies, such as GE or Siemens.
Many wave energy inventions are unsatisfactory because they are huge and heavy and would require expensive regular maintenance. Many of these inventions have a lot of moving parts that can wear out in a harsh environment, especially in the agitated salt-water, which can do a lot of corrosive damage.
Pelamis Wave Power Ltd., a U.K. maker of a very heavy wave energy system, was worth €8.2m for the initial pre-commercial phase. In September 2008, they were not able to raise the money needed to continue development despite years of work by a plethora of start-ups and many millions of dollars in government support. The cost was becoming too high related to the small amount of energy produced.
Cost is the number one disadvantage of wave energy. The possibilities of the proper technology is so varied: many innovators grope for different solutions to this very high potential, and research can be directed aimlessly in many directions. This is the reason why some companies have gone out of business as their technology failed in actual field tests. These many approaches lead to speculation on innovation and the costs are high only because of the wrong initial path.
In the absence of information on how projects operate in real-world conditions and how they affect the environment in which they operate, ocean energy developers cannot attract capital because of low power density of many wave energy inventions.
Wave Energy is only a niche renewable energy technology. While other forms of alternative energy like solar, wind and biomass see hundreds of billions of dollars in investment each year, wave energy does not see even $1 billion in investment globally.
The solution to finding the best wave energy solution has nothing to do with troubles to jump starting any new industry. You can’t start to develop word processing starting with a manual typewriter. The wave technology is so different that it requires an entirely new perspective. What is required is an idea that comes out of the Box. The jet engine was an idea that came out of the Box of all propeller-driven engines.
Something went Wrong!
Someone lost sight of the Ball: results of 9 kW to 15 kW is a light weight shadow of the Ball. Productivity of the Ball should be a minimum of a 1 MW Ball even at the beginning.
OPT’s PowerBuoy portfolio includes two power output ranges: up to 350 watts & up to 9 kW to15 kW (Weight: 26 tons)(Length: 34 m).
The power buoy has been in development for six years, and has been deployed six miles southwest of Moss Landing Harbor, California, and recovered six times over the past four years. This American experience has not been good.
Setbacks this year have likely increased financial pressure on the Reedsport project, which has received at least $4.6 million in grants from the U.S. Department of Energy and $500,000 from (PNGC) Pacific Northwest Generating Cooperative Power, a group of local utility co-ops. Ocean Power Technology’s annual reports show about a $10 million per year losses since it went public in 2007. The 2012 report also said: “If we are unable to raise additional funds when needed, our ability to operate and grow our business could be impaired.” In 2013, it happened: the $20 million project was ground to a halt because of legal and technical problems, but more accurately because of low power density.
Ocean Power Technologies has abandoned a 62.5MW wave energy project in Australia and terminated a A$66.5m government grant allocation for the scheme. Receipt of grant cash was subject to OPT securing “future significant external funding milestones” towards the A$232m proposed cost of building the wave power station off the coast of Australia, which did not happen.
So let’s analyze some of the other competition. All these competitors choose to remain in the Box: some competitors transfer energy to a large axle, which is connected by a gear box in the same manner as a wind turbine. Others rely on the air pressure created by the movement of the wave to drive a turbine, but at a very low efficiency. Some pushes high pressure water to drive an onshore hydro-electric turbine over long distances on shore. Some use a lop-sided rotating device connected to an electric generator. All these have one thing in common: low power density. Many of these facilities are very capital intensive, and their costs currently have a high degree of uncertainty. Capital investment cost estimates for the applications noted above range from $4,000 to $15,000/kW, suggesting that significant breakthroughs in capital cost would be needed to make this technology cost competitive.
The closest innovation to the HUG is the Wave Dragon technology that use the overtopping technique. These devices are wide structures that use wave velocity to fill a reservoir to a greater water level than the surrounding ocean. The potential energy in the reservoir height is then captured with low-head turbines. The Wave Dragon produces energy in almost the same traditional way (in the Box): a heavy floating barge + low head hydro power station.
The seven turbines of the Wave Dragon produce only 20 kW, while the HUG system produces up to 6.25 MW using the power of the vortex and the surge of the slab wave.
Why is the 7 MW Wave Dragon heavy (33,000 tons)? The low head turbines have to be raised to protect it from sea water damage, so it cannot be jostled with every wave.
Why is the HUG system so light? The helical turbine system is raised and sheltered on a barge inside the protective reservoir. The surrounding 15′ reservoir and the frontal reef are not part of the weight because they are formed by a mound of stone that is protected by concrete armor stonework.
How did the HUG Wave Energy invention evolve out of the Box?
- The HUG uses the power of the vortex to increase the velocity of the flow to the helical turbines.
- The HUG uses the power of the slab wave to increase the height of the waves.
- The HUG keeps its electrical generator dry on a barge inside the protection of a 15′ reservoir.
- The HUG incorporates an artificial reef in order to create high slab waves near a populated location, which now have only moderate wave activity: not simply at a remote area.
- The HUG dredges a deep trough in front of the artificial reef in order to thicken the wave at a shallow shore near a populated area.
Slab Wave in Action
Once the proper height is established to capture the optimum slab waves, the artificial reef, which is made of large dimension pipes, is replace by stonework.
OUT OF THE BOX
The Wave Energy Industry have not invented the best wave energy device yet … but they have not investigated the high-powered 11 MW HUG:
- The HUG concept combines existing, mature offshore and hydro turbine technology in a novel way by building an artificial reef, which serves to create a slab wave higher than 15′. Imagine the benefits to island electricity where oil is 50% more expensive.
- The HUG is the only wave energy converter technology under development that can be freely up-scaled, because of its low cost/kilowatt and its comparatively low weight.
- Due to its size, the HUG maintenance and even major repair works can be carried out at sea, which leads to low operating and maintenance cost relatively to other concepts. The HUG can be lifted and replaced by a crane located on a sea going barge.
Now here is the beauty of this innovation: The HUG uses the physics of the vortex to create a spiraling motion to accelerate the flow of water in order to provide the power to engage a mechanical pump, which in turn, pumps water into the high water tower above. From there this water drains down in another vortex and at the bottom, engages a second helical turbine which rotates an electric generator. Because the water level of the HUG Funnel is kept constant, this rotation is stable and the specially designed generator produces a steady 60 hertz AC current without the use of expensive invertors or converters.
Now let’s talk about the real reason for the HUG: POWER
The formula for Kinetic Energy or KE= ½ x A x V 3 x (.35) efficiency (A = area swept; Velocity) The area of the HUG throat is 3.26 m2
Acceleration = a = g (acceleration of gravity)= 9.8 m/sec
(Final Velocity)2 = 2 x a x s (distance of drop)(2 x 9.8 m/sec x 3 m)= 7.7 m/sec
Kinetic Energy = ½ x 3.26 m2 x (7.7 m/s*)3 x .35 = 260kW/turbine
|(a)Distance (s) of Crest of HUG(m)||(b)Number of Systems||(c)Number of Turbines/System||(d)Final Velocity (m/s)V2 = 2as: (During High Tide: 7.14)||(e)Final Power (kW/turbine) = ½ x 3.26 m2 x (d)3 x .35||(f)Total Power(MW) (c x e)||(h)Total Power Output of HUG(MW) (b x f)|
|3.5||4||6||7.7 (7.14*)||260 (207*)||1.56 (1.24*)||6.25 (4.96*)|
* During a tidal flood, the distance of the drop of water in the turbine is reduced to 2.6 m from 3.05 m. (Final Velocity)2 = 2 x a x s (2 x 9.8 m/sec x 2.6 m)= 7.14 m/sec during the flood of a tide. The high tide is .62 m less the low tide of .10 m or 0.52 m difference. The difference between the high tide and low tide is 1.7 feet. How can the HUG produce so much power (11 MW) for only $977/kW ( compared to other wave energy solutions: $4,000 to $15,000/kW) ?
The most critical factor is the Velocity of the flow. It is the same energy of a 10 foot waterfall: the laminar flow of the vortex increases the velocity of the flow inside the HUG.
The wave height varies between 3 to 6 feet depending on the direction of the wind, the tide and the swell direction. We introduce a slab wave from an artificial reef, which increases the wave height to 15′ to 30′. This slab wave begins with any shallow reef or rock shelf and ends in a heavy wave break coming out of deep water and breaking high in very shallow water.
The thick high volume of the slab wave entering into the reservoir all along the length of the artificial reef will allow for four 12 unit HUG Power Systems inside the reservoir each producing 1.5 MW for a total of 11 MW.Why is the HUG the obvious choice?
- The overtopping technique which create a high slab wave created by an artificial reef allows for more flexibility: the HUG can be located in more places that only have moderate wave action. Other systems must be place in areas as deep as 35 meters and as far as 200 miles from populations in order to capture energy from the highest waves at those locations.
- A Wave Power Plant can cost around $6-10 million to be spent in building one Megawatt. In contrast, the average HUG Power Plant produces three times the power for the same investment because of its high power density. The operating cost is negligible during its entire lifetime of 30 – 50 years: $0.02/kWh. An offsetting green energy grant of $0.01/kWh may reduce this operating cost in the first decade.
- The HUG Wave Energy System has very low cost of construction: a trough, an artificial reef, a reservoir and light-weight HUG Systems on a barge
- Unlike many wave energy solutions, the HUG design keeps the generator dry, because one should never mix electricity with water.
- The artificial reef used by the HUG, if properly built can withstand strong ocean waves, storms or typhoons. The HUG themselves are protected within a 15 foot high reservoir.
- The maintenance of the HUG is easy: a crane replaces each of the six HUG systems on a barge.
- The HUG System can be built at various sizes according to the needs and the budget availability. This is not possible for other energy forms which require a minimum large size such as coal, nuclear, etc.
- The HUG does not disrupt marine life. Any fish caught in the turbine will experience a twist but they will not be chopped up.
We are on the cusp of additional commercial viability. You can select the best location for an artificial reef — in a popular tourist area with prevailing winds. Your site selection doesn’t include sharp jagged urchin filled bottoms. What you have created is a surfer’s paradise. Surfers can ride the wave all along the artificial reef, which is properly angled for maximum action. What a tourist attraction!
- This is the beginning of an Island Energy Revolution! Hydrogen production will become important as hydrogen-operated automobiles has now become a reality: the cost of electrolysis in order to produce hydrogen by electricity must be kept under $0.05/kWh. The high cost of transmission of hydrogen can be eliminated by building hydrogen filling stations for automobiles and trucks right at the site of HUG Wave Energy System. Oil, which is used for automobiles and electricity production is 50% more costly and this cost can be entirely eliminated.
The Problem: Wave energy technology development as a whole has not yet delivered the desired commercial maturity nor the required techno-economic performance to date. This technology development can have a challenging price ticket: over $100 million up to 15 years with risks and setbacks in prototype testing. This is a dismal picture and it has been going on for three decades starting when the Wave Dragon was first introduced in 1987.
Most wave energy companies have disregarded the power/ton factor completely. Some large companies have selected systems with adequate power density, but these high wave locations cannot be close to civilization or they are too far for transmission lines.
The Solution: There have been a lot of wasted efforts in solving wave energy problems because of a wrong pathway. This may be the real reason why United States and Canada have not entered into the fray with the Europeans: they had not been presented with an obvious valid solution with adequate power density.
The HUG‘s compact and robust wave power plant enables over ten times higher annual energy output per ton compared to conventional wave devices.
The HUG is the obvious option.
1.83 MW x 6 HUG Produces = 11 MW: $977/kW
Budget Allowance: $10,750,000
- HUG System: 19% $2,476,000
- 6 Helical Turbines @ $100,000 $600,000
- 6 Electrical Generators @ 10,000 60,000
- 6 Submersible Pumps @ 5,000 30,000
- 6 HUG Paired Systems @ 298,000 1,786,000
- Stonework: 11 m Reservoir (17,000 m3) 25% 2,680,000
- Engineering Planning and Design: 15% 1,875,000
- Contingency, Insurance, Legal costs: 10% 1,250,000
- Grid Connection 5% 537,500
- Ten Year Refit 3% 322,500
- Loan Interest 3% 322,500
- Installation 3% 322,500
- Facilities 3% 322,500
- Mooring 2% 215,000
- Construction Management 2% 215,000
- O&M First Year 1% 107,500
- Subsea Cables 1% 107,500
Budget Allowance: $10,750,000
A Budget Allowance of $35,000,000 will produce 28.2 MW
The Carbon Trust in the UK has benchmarked first wave farm cost of energy at: $0.61 to $0.77 US cents/kWh at a 15% discount rate and assuming a 20 year life.
The range of early array costs of Wave Energy Systems varies from $0.32/ kWh to $0.63/ kWh. The UK experience was $0.37/ KWh, but their system proved unprofitable.
The forecast of cost is predicted to decrease to $0.08/ kWh with mass production over two decades. The HUG has exceeded this prediction: $0.02/kWh because the HUG is different: (out of the Box).
We wish to test a 1/20th scale model ($250,000) and to proceed with an engineering company partner.
SOME IMPORTANT LINKS
- An Irrigation System: NORTHydro.com
- A Rabbit and Fish Farm: AfriCAPITALISM.us
- An Agroforestry Intercrop System: LivingWaterIs.com
- The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
- God’s Loveletters: Godloveletters.com
- Thunder of Justice: ThunderofJustice.com
- Microfinance for women: LivingWaterMicroFinance.org
- Deliverance Is: DeliveranceIs.com