The South Africa Wave Energy Potential
The HUG South Africa Wave Energy is a game changer. It promises to bring electricity created from ocean wave energy to the ocean shores of South Africa at a very low cost.
The following images are located along the west coast of South Africa wherever there is a natural small bay. This type of topography reduces the cost of the reservoir.
Now enter a new use which is more profitable: the creation of electricity. Now it makes sense to spend over $25 million on the project because of a very lucrative return on investments: 19%/year in first year to 105%/year thereafter.
THINKING “OUT OF THE BOX”
We have been waiting for a wave energy solution for the last 40 years. There have been a dozen approaches with a lot of activity in the last ten years, but there have been no resounding commercial successes. Most ideas are replicated from other ideas in the box.
This HUG Wave Energy System is “out of the box” and it will cause an Energy Revolution.
The formula for Kinetic Energy is
KE= ½ x A x V 3 x (.35) efficiency (A = area swept; Velocity)
Diameter of the Helical Turbine in the HUG is 1 m. The radius is 0.5 m: A = π r2 = π (0.5)2 = .785 m2
SUMMER LOWER WAVES
KE = ½ x .785 m2 x (5.42 m/sec)3 x .35 = 21.9 kW/turbine x 7 HUG units/system= .153 MW x 10 HUG Systems =1.53 MW. The lower summer waves are accommodated with a lower automatic door openings. The height of the slab wave is smaller during the summer: hence a lower velocity for a 1.5 m drop: 5.42 m/sec.
HIGH WAVES DURING STRONG PREVAILING WIND
KE = ½ x .785 m2 x (9.9 m/sec)3 x .35 = 132.6 kW/turbine x 7 HUG units/system= .927 MW x 10 HUG Systems = 9.27 MW for a 5 m drop. The overall annual average is 6.25 MW.
- The overtopping technique which creates a high slab wave created by an artificial reef allows for more flexibility: the HUG can be located in more places facing the prevailing winds that may only have moderate wave action. Other overtopping wave energy systems have to be built where there are high waves, which may be too far away from the population. The HUG system creates slab waves from average wave action at the desired location.
- The HUG has very low cost of construction: an artificial reef, a reservoir and the light-weight HUG System
- On average, a competitive wave power plant can cost around $6-10 million to create one Megawatt of electricity. The average HUG Power Plant cost $25 million to produce 1.5 MW to 9.3 MW ($2.7 million/ Megawatt). The investment earns an average of $3 million/year for a Return on Investment of 12% in the first year. The operating cost is very low during its entire life-time of 30 years: $0.018/kWh. An annual offsetting green energy grant of $0.01/kWh will reduce this operating cost. The selling price exceeds $0.08/kWh. The comparative price in Hawaii exceeds $0.30/kWh. (The pay-back period is estimated to be one year in Hawaii.)
Say goodbye to diesel oil.
Budget Allowance: $25,000,000
- HUG System: 24% $5,900,000
- Dredging, Stonework & Concrete 31% 7,700,000*
- Engineering Planning and Design: 12% 3,115,000
- Contingency, Insurance, Legal costs: 8% 2,040,000
- Artificial Reef 6% 1,300,000
- O & M First Year: 5% 1,050,000
- Ten Year Refit 4% 835,000
- Loan Interest 2.5% 625,000
- Installation 2.5% 625,000
- Facilities 2.5% 625,000
- Mooring 2% 420,000
- Construction Management 2% 420,000
- Sub-sea pipeline 1% 200,000
Budget Allowance: $24,855,000
- On some more desirable locations, the civil works of $7.7 million can be reduced to $1 million to $2 million.
|INCOME: 49,275,000 kWh/year [x $0.079 (Quebec)] $3,893,000: ROI Quebec = 19% in first year (@90% utilization) ROI Hawaii = 105% in first year (@90% utilization)
ROI : $3,893,000 – (475,000/yr. Loan Interest) = $3,418,000/year
COMPARATIVE ELECTRICITY COST: 49,275,000 kWh/year [x $0.34(Hawaii)] $16,275,000:
The Following Year: O&M annual costs are 15%: $0.02/kWh:
less $0.01/kWh Carbon Tax Grant
|70 Turbines x 90 kW/turbine = 6.25 MW average annually
Typically 30-60 kW per meter along the coasts: (30 kw/m x 200 m length of reef = 6 MW)
Total Costs of 6,250 kW or 49,275,000 kWh/year: $25,000,000 @ 90% utilization
6,250 kW x 7884 hours/year@ 90% utilization = 49,275,000 kWh/year
This amount of electricity will support 5000 households@ 10,000 kWh/home
The advantages of HUG Wave Power are obvious:
- Green: no emissions of harmful green house gases
- Renewable: there will always be waves and wave energy does not require any fuel like most other sources of energy.
- Enormous Energy Potential: the energy density is 30-100 KW per meter of wave length
- Reliable: not like solar or wind energy with no noise pollution and no oil spills or coal deaths.
- Area Efficiency: less than a half square mile of ocean produced 300 MW (the density of water is 800 times higher than air)
- Flexibility: they can be located along the shore where most populations exist and where there are prevailing winds.
- Ideal for Islands: that depend on expensive imported oil
- Predictable and Consistent: in areas of prevailing winds
- The HUG does not disrupt marine life. Any fish caught in the turbine will experience a twist but they will not be chopped up.
- The HUG can be located in more places that only have moderate wave action.
Wave power doesn’t get much attention, but technologies for extracting energy from ocean motion could end up following the same growth curves that we have seen for wind and, more recently, solar power. A theme among wave power experts is that wave energy is where wind energy was three decades ago.
The closest concept to the HUG Wave Energy System is the Wave Dragon overtopping device as shown above. The difference is that the above system is built like a large heavy ship so as not to be jostled by strong waves. Their system does not use the physics of the slab wave and the principle of the vortex, which creates much higher velocity. Hence, in order to maximize the velocity of the waves, they are forced to place their system in the location of high waves, which may not be a convenient location.
The HUG can be located in places with average ocean waves close to populations:
There have been a lot of wasted efforts in solving wave energy problems because of wrong pathways: too big, too mechanical. There have been no real great commercial successes. This may be the real reason why big companies like GE have not entered into the fray.
- Besides providing electricity, the HUG Wave Energy System can produce hydrogen, which is less expensive than imported oil to the islands and is more environmentally sustainable. The secret of hydrogen electrolysis is the low cost of electricity, which must be kept under $0.05/kWh. The high cost of transmission of hydrogen can be eliminated by building hydrogen filling stations for automobiles and trucks right at the site of HUG Wave Energy System: the frontage on shore ranges up to 280 m.
- Besides providing electricity, the HUG Wave Energy System can provide fresh water from an electrolysis system that is activated by high pressure water: a Reverse Osmosis Desalination process. Typical operating costs will range from $2/Kgal of fresh water, because of the low price of electricity: $0.01/kWh
- Wherever there are surfers on any island or in any ocean going country, you can create electricity. Around the coasts of Northern Ireland and the west coast of Scotland, are some of the richest reserves of renewable energy in Europe, with the strongest winds and the largest waves.
- The HUG Artificial Reef will provide safe surfing on great slab waves over 200′ long close to population centers in a tourist area without the danger of sharp rock formations and urchins.
OTHER IMPORTANT LINKS
- An Irrigation System: NORTHydro.com
- A Rabbit and Fish Farm: AfriCAPITALISM.us
- An Agroforestry Intercrop System: LivingWaterIs.com
- The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
- God’s Loveletters: Godloveletters.com
- Thunder of Justice: ThunderofJustice.com
- Microfinance for women: LivingWaterMicroFinance.org
- Deliverance Is: DeliveranceIs.com