Climate change is the most difficult problem the world has ever faced: it is huge in its global scope and they are the biggest challenge of the century. We have far more oil, coal and gas than we can safely burn. We can only avoid devastating damage if most of the world’s coal, oil and gas are left in the ground. We can’t burn them if we care about climate change. Is this the Burning Question?
Here is the problem: even if we gave up on all the obscure and unconventional fossil fuel resources that companies are spending billions trying to access and just burned the “proven” oil, coal and gas reserves – the ones that are already economically viable – we would emit almost 3 tons of carbon dioxide. No one can say exactly how much warming that would cause, but it is overwhelmingly likely that we would shoot well past 2 C degree and towards 3 C degree or even 4 C degree of warming.
The book, Burning Question reveals climate change to be the most fascinating scientific, political and social puzzle in history. It shows that carbon emissions are still accelerating upwards, following an exponential curve that goes back centuries.
The simple truth is that tackling global warming will mean persuading the world to abandon oil, coal and gas. For all the uncertainty about the detail, every science academy in the world accepts the mainstream view of man-made global warming.Continue reading The Burning Question→
The secret to low energy costs is to keep the Breakwater cost low: build a road-worthy seawall from the shore so that trucks can haul stone works more economically than by barge.
Building a Breakwater from the Shore
A major part of the breakwaters constructed in the world are the so-called conventional ruble mound breakwaters, which consist of a core, a filter layer and a heavy armor layer. An alternative to the conventional ruble mound breakwater is a berm breakwater.
When there is a rock quarry, relatively close to the construction site, which is dedicated to the breakwater project, the Icelandic type has proven to be very attractive economically. The basic reason for that is that unlike the other types the Icelandic type utilizes the quarry 100%.
The smaller armor stones are then placed rather deep where the influence of the wave attack is less, as well as on the rear end of the structure, while the largest stones are placed where the largest wave attack is expected.
The key to the use of the Icelandic berm breakwater design is in its ability to match the predicted quarry yields of the potential quarries.
The equipment park used by the contractor consists of 4 backhoe excavators 110, 75, 50 and 25 tons, three front loaders 75 and two 45 tons, three dumpers, a split barge of 250 m3 capacity and three drilling rigs. They used a large excavator both in sorting the largest stones and placing them on the breakwater.
One other solution is a breach of the dam. A breach allows part of the dam to be removed. The process is usually done to allow fish passage and keep the dam’s value as a monument to human ingenuity. They have such amazing demolition tools these days. That hydraulic jackhammer and that claw & bucket are really impressive and innovative.
The amount of sediment in the riverbed may be too great for dredging to be effective, Sediment may cover over 50% of the reservoir, causing a rise in surface water level in the reservoir.
Replacing the power produced at the dam would cost an average of $271 million per year, a number that is larger than the $217 million estimate of what it costs to keep the dams. Enter the HUG that can continue to power the dam!
HUG (Helical Unique Generation) is a New Good, an Innovative Hydro Electric Power System which has never been seen before; it substantially deviates from any other good or service produced before. Over the past decades, no major breakthroughs have occurred in the basic machinery of utilities.
We have developed the proprietary HUG, based on the physics of the vortex, which will revolutionize hydroelectric energy. This new damless development of a submerged helical pathway is capable of extracting hydro-electric power from rivers, rapids or small waterfalls at low cost.Continue reading HUGE HUG INNOVATION→
This “one inventive idea” is not like a grand idea similar to wind turbines, that started small and developed into 150,000 MW globally. Each new development of wind turbines was an improvement on what worked well in the first place. The grand idea of the wind turbine was something to work toward, but the grand idea had to come first.
Inventions whose ideas remain in the Box, which are only a slight change to present ideas have never succeeded in the last 30 years. Each country knows that it must find more sources of sustainable energy. The Department of Energy from each country turns to the engineering departments of universities — almost in desperation. Under extreme anxiety, the staff comes up with an idea, but the idea come from inside the Box. Often the government throws millions of dollars at that “one inventive idea“.
The wave energy industry is in its infancy, with no commercial-scale facilities operating anywhere in the world. Bloomberg New Energy Finance, a London-based researcher, in August said the evolution of marine-energy systems is taking longer than expected and costing more than forecast. BNEF lowered its capacity forecast for wave power by 2020 to 21 megawatts, 72 percent less than its original estimate. It stated large amounts of money will be required for wave power to catch up with wind and solar.
A theme among wave power experts is that wave energy is where wind energy was three decades ago. It will likely require the participation of some large companies, such as GE or Siemens.
Many wave energy inventions are unsatisfactory because they are huge and heavy and would require expensive regular maintenance. Many of these inventions have a lot of moving parts that can wear out in a harsh environment, especially in the agitated salt-water, which can do a lot of corrosive damage.
Pelamis Wave Power Ltd., a U.K. maker of a very heavy wave energy system, was worth €8.2m for the initial pre-commercial phase. In September 2008, they were not able to raise the money neededto continue development despite years of work by a plethora of start-ups and many millions of dollars in government support. The cost was becoming too high related to the small amount of energy produced.
Cost is the number one disadvantage of wave energy. The possibilities of the proper technology is so varied: many innovators grope for different solutions to this very high potential, and research can be directed aimlessly in many directions. This is the reason why some companies have gone out of business as their technology failed in actual field tests. These many approaches lead to speculation on innovation and the costs are high only because of the wrong initial path.
In the absence of information on how projects operate in real-world conditions and how they affect the environment in which they operate, ocean energy developers cannot attract capital because of low power density of many wave energy inventions.
Wave Energy is only a niche renewable energy technology. While other forms of alternative energy like solar, wind and biomass see hundreds of billions of dollars in investment each year, wave energy does not see even $1 billion in investment globally.
The solution to finding the best wave energy solution has nothing to do with troubles to jump starting any new industry. You can’t start to develop word processing starting with a manual typewriter.The wave technology is so different that it requires an entirely new perspective. What is required is an idea that comes out of the Box. The jet engine was an idea that came out of the Box of all propeller-driven engines.
THE HUG (Helical Unique Generation) is a new good, which has never been seen before. It substantially deviates from any other good or service produced before. Over the past decades, no major breakthroughs or innovation have occurred in the basic machinery of pipeline rehabilitation using a liner.
THE NEED: Corrosion remains the number one problem in the industry. The Saudi Arabian Oil Company (Saudi Aramco) is the state-owned oil company of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It is among the leading producers of natural gas, and monitors and controls a 20,000 km pipeline network. The problem of corrosion took precedence in the latest pipeline conference this summer in Saudi Arabia: one third of the time was allocated to this problem.
THE HIGH COST OF REHABILITATION
In January 2010, UAE-based construction firm, Dodsal, won a contract for the replacement of a 100 km, 36 inch diameter pipeline linking Abu Dhabi, worth approximately $US 85 million: $US 8.5 million/km. The HUG Thermoplastic Liner would have cost 25% to 33% less: $56.6million to $US64 million– a saving up to $US21 million and still would have generated a very high profit margin.
What is needed is a larger 2 inch gap with a lubricated slip slide, which will be extruded at the rehabilitation site and inserted overone mile.
THE HUG THERMOSTATIC LINER
Our patented technique has a larger gap between each pipe to avoid corrosion obstruction (2″ – not 0.5″). We don’t compress the whole pipeline — only the segments are compressed much like a hat is indented.