Lake Chad Basin Water Transfer
Lake Chad is located in the far west of Chad and the northeast of Nigeria. Parts of Lake Chad basin also extend to Niger and Cameroon. This is a proposal to transfer water to the Lake Chad Basin over the Mongos Mountains of Central African Republic. This will be accomplished by a series of dams all along the Ouaka River.
Lake Chad is fed mainly by the Chari River through the Logone tributary, which used to provide 90 per cent of its water. It was once Africa’s largest water reservoir in the Sahel region, covering an area of about 26,000 square kilometers bigger than Israel or Kuwait.
Lake Chad is economically important, providing water to more than 68 million people living in the four countries surrounding it (Chad, Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria) on the edge of the Sahara Desert. Unfortunately, Lake Chad has contracted by a massive 95%.
The Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) has raised more than $5 million for a feasibility study to supply water from the Congo River Drainage System. This can be accomplished by building a series of dams in order to pump water uphill from the Congo River to the Chari River and then on to Lake Chad.
The important series of dams are built in the Mongos Mountains where there is very little civilization. This system is not unlike a canal system with its series of gates or instead the system used will be a series of dams along the pathway. Since the dams are non-powered, an unlimited amount of rocks and stones can be dynamited from the mountain side.
How many dams would be required to raise the water level to 1000 m? Each dam location would be selected on how narrow the valley would be. It may take as many as 10 dams each raising the level by an average of 100 m.
Because Lake Chad is very shallow—only 10.5 metres (34 ft) at its deepest—its area is particularly sensitive to small changes in average depth. The surface area is 26,000 km2 x The water level of Lake Chad must be raised to another 5 meters x 26,000 km² . This is equivalent to 1.3e+10 square meters.
One 1.5 m pipe normally delivers water at the rate of 2.65 m/sec. The water transfer pipeline of a set of three HUG spiraling pipes has a 1.5 m width each and an area of 1.75 m2 x 3 = 5.3 m2 x 2.65 m/sec = 14 m3/sec normally : 1.3e+10 m²÷ 14 m3/sec = 92,800,000 seconds or 1074 days for full recovery.