Tag Archives: water transfer

Lake Chad Recovery

Lake Chad Water Transfer

Lake Chad is located in the far west of Chad and the northeast of  Nigeria. Parts of Lake Chad basin also extend to Niger and Cameroon. This is a proposal to transfer water to the Lake Chad Basin over the Mongos Mountains of Central African Republic. This will be accomplished by a series of dams all along the Ouaka River.

Lake Chad is fed mainly by the Chari River through the Logone tributary, which used to provide 90 per cent of its water. It was once Africa’s largest water reservoir in the Sahel region, covering an area of about 26,000 square kilometers bigger than Israel or Kuwait.


Lake Chad Recovery

Lake Chad is economically important, providing water to more than 68 million people living in the four countries surrounding it (Chad, Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria) on the edge of the Sahara Desert.  Unfortunately, Lake Chad has contracted by a massive 95%. 

The Lake Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) has raised more than $5 million for a feasibility study to supply water from the Congo River Drainage System. This can be accomplished by building a series of dams in order to pump water uphill from the Congo River to the Chari River and then on to Lake Chad.

The important series of dams are built in the Mongos Mountains where there is very little civilization. This system is not unlike a canal system with its series of gates or instead the system used will be a series of dams along the pathway. Since the dams are non-powered, an unlimited amount of rocks and stones can be dynamited from the mountain side. 

 How many dams would be required to raise the water level to 1000 m?  Each dam location would be selected on how narrow the valley would be.  It may take as many as 10 dams each raising the level by  an average of 100 m.

Because Lake Chad is very shallow—only 10.5 metres (34 ft) at its deepest—its area is particularly sensitive to small changes in average depth. The surface area is 26,000 km2 x  The water level of Lake Chad must be raised to another 5 meters x 26,000 km² . This is equivalent to 1.3e+10 square meters.

Lake Chad RecoveryChad Lake Recovery

One 1.5 m pipe normally delivers water at the rate of 2.65 m/sec. The water transfer pipeline of a set of three HUG spiraling pipes has a 1.5 m width each and an area of 1.75 m2 x 3 = 5.3 m2 x 2.65 m/sec = 14 m3/sec normally : 1.3e+10 m²÷ 14 m3/sec = 92,800,000 seconds or 1074 days for full recovery. 


HUG Kinetic Energy

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HUG Competition

To be the First Mover in Tidal Power

Innovation is usually geared toward improving efficiency or effectiveness. Efficiency innovations decrease the cost to market. For this reason, investors are not so much interested in the “new” aspect of innovation, as they are in the “improved” part.  HUG Tidal power is more than improved: it is an entirely new good.

What must be done to create new products, enhance market penetration, lock in customers and lower operational costs?

Often the risk and the costs associated with achieving competitive advantage is formidable

Developing new and unique products that are not easily duplicated by competitors: one provides more value to the customer, which in turn creates brand loyalty because having one’s name associated with a new product (much like snowmobiles have been called “SkiDoos”  for years).  One simply becomes the “go to” company as Wal-Mart did.

Enter the HUG!

None of the Present Technology use the Power of the Vortex, like the HUG.

  1. The Dam has inherent disadvantages:
  • The large size includes concrete construction involving high construction costs.
  • Each dam plant is very expensive because a custom-designed, one-off project.
  • Fish-passage facilities need to be provided to help fish bypass the power station.
  1. Investment in helical turbines has increased to US$257 million (Korea) in 2007. Kordi of Korea had planned its pilot turbines in ocean currents at Uldolmok. Korea have very strong currents up to 6.5 m/s.  They have designed 24 jackets (16m by 16m) along 3 lanes. The difference is that the helical turbines are not placed in a vortex of a pathway like a HUG. See Figure 1.
  1. Ireland’s OpenHydro has spent $2.2 million on their propeller system in the Bay of Fundy to date. This company has not really reported any news about their new invention, since they installed it several years ago. The total device weighs 360 tons, which is a large burden. The power density is 2.6 kW/m2. See Figure 2.   The HUG Power Density is an unbelievable 73.5 kW/m2.
  1. France’s Alstom Hydro Canada Inc. , having licensed Clean Current’s technology, planned to demonstrate its tidal turbine, which is in the form of a propeller. See Figure 3.  [Consortium Members: Emerson Electric Co.; Clean Current Power Systems Inc.;  Alstom Hydro France]
  1.  Verdant Power (SDTC support) is currently installing six Gorlov turbines in New York City’s East River. Each turbine will have a blade diameter of 16 feet and is rated at between 25–30 kW. Again, these turbines are simply placed in the path of a tidal flow.  The Power output at 2.5 m/s is only 168kW/turbine. The  power density is only 2.8 kW/m2.  [Consortium:  Consortium Members:Mohawk Council of Akwesasne;  St. Lawrence College of Applied Arts and Technology;  St. Lawrence River Institute of Environmental  Sciences; Ontario Power Authority; Niagara Region Ventures Fund]  See Figure 4.
  1. United Kingdom’s Atlantis Operation (Canada) (SDTC support): 1 MW AR1000 propeller turbine which is immense and very heavy in size. [Consortium: Lockheed Martin Canada (LMC);Irving Shipbuilding] See Figure 5.
  1. Canada’s Clean Current Power Systems Inc.(SDTC support): propeller turbine 65kW needs a 5.5 meter depth and an unlikely stated speed of the river of 3.0 to 3.5 m/sec., unlike the 1 meter depth of the HUG with a more likely river speed of 2 m/s. [Consortium:  EnCana Corp.;  New Energy Corporation Inc.; Tidal Power Generation] See Figure 6.
  1. Canada’s New Energy Corporation Inc.(SDTC support): using superior four helical blades producing a small 5kW and much larger 25 kW system designed for high velocity of 3 m/s. Again this system relies entirely on the affluent flow of the current…unlike the HUG, which uses a system to increase this to a laminar flow thereby creating a zero friction boundary layer along the inside lining of the HUG.  [Consortium: Nova Scotia Power Inc.] See Figure 7.
  1. R.E.R (SDTC support)is installed at the Lachine Rapids near Montreal. Unfortunately, their system has to be built as big as the Kordi system in Korea: 2.3 kW/ m2. The maintenance on such a large structure will be a huge expense. [Consortium: ABB Inc. (Canada); Agence de l’efficacité énergétique du Québec]  BANKRUPT! See Figure 8.
  1. The prototype of a VLH system, developed with a French partner by Turbines Novatech-Lowatt Inc. in Beloeil, Quebec. Once connected to the network, the first VLH turbine has been submitted to exhaustive commissioning tests. (Area = 15.9 m2) The weakness of this system is the low velocity (2 m/s. The maintenance on such a large structure will be a huge expense. See Figure 9.
  1. The most advanced companies from a commercialization standpoint are two European companies: Marine Current Turbines of the UK (cost unknown) and Hammerfest Strøm of Norway(Investment to date: $13.4 million). Both of these companies use a propeller style turbine, which have received significant support from their respective federal governments. In contrast, the HUG has negative pressure or a suction action at its entrance. Also, a propeller style turbine, which is used by the competitors, has a lower efficiency of 20% compared to the helical turbine’s 35% efficiency.  See Figure 10.


Figure 1 Kordi of Korea have designed 16m by 16m tidal systems.

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