OCEAN WAVE ENERGY: WAVING GOOD BUY?
THE idea of extracting energy from an ocean wave and turning it into electricity is an alluring one. It has the potential to fill in the gaps that are left by wind and sun power plants when it is calm and dark.
We calculate that the cost of producing electricity from the HUG will be around $0 .003 kilowatt hour. That compares with 16 cents a kilowatt hour for offshore wind farms, six cents for the onshore variety and a grid-connected fossil-fuel power station at five cents or more.
HUG Wave Energy Systems are ultra-simple, only three moving parts: the helical turbine, the submersible pump and the electric generator (which is accessible and kept dry). The simple HUG design will operate for decades with no more maintenance than an occasional scrub to remove accumulated barnacles.
The HUG uses higher waves to fill a higher reservoir to a greater water level than the surrounding ocean. The lower Pump HUG has a helical turbine, which engages a submersible pump in order to send water up a HUG pipeline to a second Funnel HUG above the water line on its own barge where its second helical turbine engages an electric generator in a dry environment.
The real advantage of the HUG is POWER from the action of the vortex in the HUG and the Venturi effect created by the shape of the HUG:
Now let’s explain the real reason for the HUG: HIGH POWER DENSITY
The formula for Kinetic Energy is KE= ½ x A x V 3 x (.35) efficiency (A = area swept); Velocity. The area of the throat of the HUG is 3.26 m2
Kinetic Energy = ½ x 3.26 m2 x (14.7 to 17.7 m/s)3 x .35 = 14.7 to 74.5 kW/turbine
Acceleration = a = g (acceleration of gravity) = 9.8 m/sec 2 for 11 to 16 m waves.
(Final Velocity)2 = 2 x a x s (2 x 9.8 m/sec x (11m to16 m)= 14.7 m/sec to 17.7m/sec
Distance (s) of Crest of HUG
Number of Systems
Number of Turbine
Final Velocity (m/s)
V2 = 2as: (11m to16 m)
Final Power (kW/ turbine) = ½ x 3.26 m2 x (d)3 x .35
(c x e)
Total Power Output of HUG
(b x f)
|3.5||4||6||14.7 (17.7)||564 to 745||3.38(4.47)||13(17)|
How can the HUG produce so much power: 13-17 MW?
The most critical factor is the velocity of the flow. It is the same energy of a 10 foot waterfall: the laminar flow increases the velocity of the flow inside the HUG, which accelerates at 9.8 m/sec and travels at a velocity up to 17.7 m/sec.
The HUG is the right path because it has the ability to capture over 80% of the wave energy at a low cost ($0.003/kWh)
- LOW COST: The HUG Wave Energy System has very low cost of construction: an artificial reef, a reservoir and the light-weight HUG The average HUG Power Plant produces 13 – 17 MW for a $15.5 million investment earning $8.2 million/year at $0.08/kWh for a ROI over 53%/year in a monopolistic market protected by patents.
- PROTECTED: The artificial reef used by the HUG, if properly built can withstand strong ocean waves, storms or typhoons because they are built below sea level. The HUG themselves are protected within the 16 foot high reservoir.
- MAINTENANCE: The maintenance of the HUG is easy: a crane is able to lift and replaces each of the six HUG
- LOCATION: Even in areas of insufficient wave strength, an artificial reef can change the potential in any given area, which requires electricity, especially on islands. The prevailing wind is the only variable. In contrast, the competition depends on high waves which are located far away from areas of demand. The HUG can be located in more places near urban growth that only have moderate wave action.
- SMALL BUDGET POTENTIAL: The HUG System can be built at various sizes according to the needs and the budget availability. This is not possible for other energy forms which require a minimum large size such as coal, nuclear, etc.
- ECO FRIENDLY: The HUG does not disrupt marine life. Any fish caught in the turbine will experience a twist but they will not be chopped up.
- SCALABLE: The thick high volume of the slab wave entering into the reservoir all along the length of the artificial reef will allow for many more 6 unit HUG Power Systems inside the reservoir each producing 13 to 17 MW. The only variables will be the length of the artificial reef and the size of the reservoir. Once full production is realized, the actual cost of a 6-unit HUG Power Systems will be reduced by 30%.
- VERY LOW OPERATING COST: A Wave Power Plant can cost around $6-10 million to be spent in building one Megawatt. The average HUG Power Plant produces 8 times the power for the same investment because of its high power density. The operating cost is negligible during its entire lifetime of 30 years: $0.003/kWh.
- CARBON TAX FUNDING: An offsetting green energy grant of $0.01/kWh can reduce the operating cost from $0.003/kWh COST to $0.007/kWh GRANT. The Return on Investment of 53% will be multiplied.
A HUG Artificial Reef can be built with light and environmentally inert HDPE large dimension pipes. It is laid upon an internal core made of rubble stones and an armor of special blocks.
An alternative embodiment of the artificial reef is to build a road-worthy seawall from the shore so that trucks can haul stone works more economically than by barge, which consist of a core, a filler layer and a heavy armor layer. A moored floating breakwater system is used during construction to protect against hostile waves.
To provide a similar deep water experience of slab waves, a deep trough is dug in front of the artificial reef, which can create a thicker and higher slab wave.
- The average HUG Power Plant produces 13 MW to 17 MW for a $15.5 million investment earning $8.2 million/year for a Return on Investment over 53%/year. The operating cost is $0.003/kWh.
- The HUG can be located in more places facing the prevailing winds that may have moderate wave action: a boon to all islands in the world.
- The HUGs themselves are protected by the artificial reef and the wall of the reservoir.
- The maintenance of the HUG is easy: a crane lifts and replaces each of the HUGs.
- The HUG System can be built at various sizes according to the budget availability.
- Any fish caught in the turbine will experience a twist and won’t be chopped up.
One of the bigger advantages of the HUG Wave Energy System has to do with eliminating the expensive converters, which are necessary in wind turbines that have to handle strong and weak winds. The electrical grid requires a steady 60 Hz AC current and the converter does this work. The HUG requires no such expense because the rotation of the helical turbine is steady and with it, so is the electrical generator, since the water level at the top of the HUG Funnel is always filled to the brim.
Remember that the HUG vortex creates four to five times the increase of velocity. The turbine’s power is proportional to the cube of its average velocity. Thus, a doubling of the average speed of the flow results in an eight-fold increase in its power. Hence this makes the drain arrangement of a HUG Funnel superior to any other similar system.
A SECOND USE
The HUG Wave Energy pressure can be put to a second use, too—to run a process called reverse osmosis, which removes salt from water. Osmosis happens when a solution of salt and a body of pure water are kept apart by a membrane permeable to water molecules, but not to the ions of which salt is composed. The resulting “osmotic” pressure on the water propels it into the brine through the membrane. Apply sufficient physical pressure from high pressure HUG pipelines on shore to ocean water will desalinate it.
Creating the necessary pressure requires a lot of energy. Reverse-osmosis desalination plants thus tend to guzzle diesel or electricity. But the HUG dispenses with all that. It delivers water at a high enough pressure for reverse osmosis to happen automatically. As a result, about a third of freshwater can come from desalination driven by wave power.
ISLAND ELECTRICAL POWER REVOLUTION
What this means is an Electrical Power Revolution for every island on earth — all of which have some moderate wave action. We introduce an artificial reef to dramatically increase the height of these modest waves: higher waves mean more power.
Look at the lowest average 4′ to 6’wave heights in Hawaii; an artificially created slab wave will double that height and the HUG Wave Energy can produce 13 MW to 17 MW for every 420′ of shoreline.
The cost over the 30 year lifetime is only $0.003/kWh and government subsidies for renewable energy sources provide $0.05/kWh in the first decade.
Compare this to the cost of electricity in Hawaii: $.34/kWh:
Wave energy costs
HYDROGEN ELECTROLYSIS PRODUCTION: for hydrogen operated automobiles becomes a reality if the cost of electrolysis is less than $0.05/kWh. This would be a boon for islands that must import expensive fuel. Remember the HUG Cost: $0.003/kWh. Islands will no longer need to import oil and gasoline for cars.
SOME IMPORTANT LINKS
- An Irrigation System: NORTHydro.com
- A Rabbit and Fish Farm: AfriCAPITALISM.us
- An Agroforestry Intercrop System: LivingWaterIs.com
- The Charitable Arm: SunnyUp.net
- God’s Loveletters: Godloveletters.com
- Thunder of Justice: ThunderofJustice.com
- Microfinance for women: LivingWaterMicroFinance.org
- Deliverance Is: DeliveranceIs.com